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Threat Object Prevalence

One of my favorite features in RBA is knowing how often something has occurred in an environment; generally, the more rare or anomalous something is, the more likely it is to be malicious. The threat object drilldown in the sample Risk Investigation Dashboard is designed to offer an analyst that context, but we could utilize unique counts of threat objects to automatically tune scores.

You'll have to decide how often you want this information updated, but utilizing tstats against the Risk Index means this should be pretty snappy and could run pretty frequently over a long timeframe. Create a new saved search with this logic, firing with a frequency you like, and looking back at least 7 days:

| from datamodel Risk.All_Risk
| eval threat_object = mvzip(threat_object_type,threat_object,"|||")
| table risk_object threat_object user dest source
| eval to_full = threat_object 
| eval to_split = mvjoin(to_full,"::::")
| eventstats count by threat_object
| sistats count values(to_full) values(user) values(dest) by threat_object,to_split,source
| rename psrsvd_vm_to_full AS to_full
| rename psrsvd_vm_user AS users
| rename psrsvd_vm_dest AS dests
| rename psrsvd_gc AS count
| rex field=to_full max_match=0 "(?<threat_pal_temp>.*?;\d+;)"
| rex field=users max_match=0 "(?<user_temp>.*?;\d+;)"
| rex field=dests max_match=0 "(?<dest_temp>.*?;\d+;)"
| eventstats count as count2 by threat_object
| table count user_temp dest_temp source threat_pal_temp threat_object count2
| stats max(count) as total_count dc(user_temp) as dc_users values(user_temp) as users dc(dest_temp) as dc_dests values(dest_temp) as dests dc(sources_temp) as dc_sources values(count2) as to_count by threat_object threat_pal_temp source
| table total_count to_count source dc_users users dc_dests dests threat_pal_temp threat_object
| rex field=threat_pal_temp "(?<threat_pal>.*?);(?<threat_count>\d+);"
| rex field=users "(?<users_temp>.*?);\d+;"
| rex field=dests "(?<dests_temp>.*?);\d+;"
| rex field=threat_object "^(?<threat_object_type>.+)\|\|\|(?<threat_notype>.*)"
| rex field=threat_object "^(?<threat_pal_type>.+)\|\|\|(?<threat_pal_notype>.*)"
| eval to_count = if(threat_pal=threat_object,to_count,total_count)
| stats sum(threat_count) as threat_count dc(users_temp) as dc_users dc(dests_temp) as dc_dests values(users) as users values(dests) as dests values(source) as sources dc(source) as dc_sources values(to_count) as to_count values(threat_object_type) as threat_object_type values(threat_notype) as threat_notype values(threat_pal_type) as threat_pal_type values(threat_pal_notype) as threat_pal_notype BY threat_object,threat_pal
| eval triage_status = case(
threat_count>10, "regular_event",
true(), "rare" )
| eval threat_multiplier = case(
triage_status="many_dest" OR triage_status="many_user","0",
triage_status="multiple_dest" OR triage_status="multiple_user","0.25",
| eval threat_info=triage_status." ".threat_object_type.": dc_users=".dc_users." dc_dests=".dc_dests." dc_sources=".dc_sources." observed_count/alt_count=".threat_count."/".to_count." threat_object=".threat_notype
| eval users = if(mvcount(users)>9,"10+ entities",users), dests = if(mvcount(dests)>9,"10+ entities",dests)
| table threat_multiplier threat_count to_count threat_info triage_status dc_users users dc_dests dests dc_sources sources threat_object threat_pal threat_object_type threat_pal_type threat_notype threat_pal_notype
| sort - threat_count
| outputlookup threat_check.csv

What I've tried to do with this lookup is see how often each threat object fires with another pair, which adds some complexity to the logic but ensures that a unique threat object pairing maintains its score and doesn't decrease scores inadvertently when a regularly firing threat object fires with something new.

The reason I sort in descending order by count is so that in the following search, mvindex() utilizes the highest count for that threat pairing.

Feel free to tweak the threat_multiplier to your heart's content, or include additional logic with triage_status.

Incorporating into Risk Notables

I will use the general logic for the limit score stacking Risk Incident Rule with some modifications, and the datamodel command for clarity and speed:

| datamodel Risk search
| `drop_dm_object_name("All_Risk")`
| eval threat_object = mvzip(threat_object_type,threat_object,"|||")
| fillnull threat_object threat_object_type value="blah"
| lookup threat_check.csv threat_object AS threat_object threat_pal AS threat_object threat_object_type sources AS source OUTPUT threat_info threat_multiplier
| eval combined_ro = risk_object . "|" . risk_object_type
| fillnull risk_message value="" | fillnull threat_multiplier value="1" | eval risk_hash = md5(risk_message)
| eval threat_info = mvindex(threat_info,0) , threat_multiplier = mvindex(threat_multiplier,0)
| eventstats sum(calculated_risk_score) as total_risk_score max(calculated_risk_score) as single_risk_score by combined_ro source
| eventstats sum(total_risk_score) as supersum max(single_risk_score) as single_score by combined_ro source
| eval cross_total_score=if(supersum < single_score*2, supersum, single_score*2)
| eval cross_total_score = cross_total_score * threat_multiplier
| stats count as observed_count
    sum(calculated_risk_score) as total_risk_score
    max(calculated_risk_score) as single_risk_score
    values(threat_info) as threat_info
    values(risk_message) as risk_message
    values(risk_hash) as risk_hash
    values(threat_full) as threat_full
    values(threat_multiplier) as threat_multiplier
    values(annotations.mitre_attack.mitre_tactic_id) as mitre_tactic_id
    dc(annotations.mitre_attack.mitre_tactic_id) as mitre_tactic_id_count
    values(annotations.mitre_attack.mitre_technique_id) as mitre_technique_id,
    dc(annotations.mitre_attack.mitre_technique_id) as mitre_technique_id_count
    sum(cross_total_score) as cross_total_score
    values(tag) as tag
    dc(_time) AS dc_events 
by combined_ro, source, threat_object
| eval capped_risk_score=if(total_risk_score < single_risk_score*2, total_risk_score, single_risk_score*2)
| eval risk_object = mvindex(split(combined_ro, "|"), 0)
| eval risk_object_type = mvindex(split(combined_ro, "|"), 1)
| fields - combined_*
| eval threat_info = mvjoin(threat_info,"::::")
| eval threat_full = mvzip(threat_object,threat_info,"::::THREAT OBJECT PAIRS::::")
| rex mode=sed field=threat_full "s/::::/\n/g"
| eval total_risk_score = total_risk_score * threat_multiplier
| eval capped_risk_score = capped_risk_score * threat_multiplier
| eventstats values(risk_object) as related_objects by risk_hash
| stats 
    values(*) as *
    sum(total_risk_score) as total_risk_score 
    sum(capped_risk_score) as capped_risk_score
    values(cross_total_score) as cross_total_score
    sum(normalized_risk_score) as normalized_risk_score
    sum(normalcap_risk_score) as normalcap_risk_score
    dc(mitre_tactic_id) as mitre_tactic_id_count
    dc(mitre_technique_id) as mitre_technique_id_count
    dc(source) as source_count
    by risk_object
| eval cross_total_score = sum(cross_total_score) , cross_total_score = if(cross_total_score>=total_risk_score,capped_risk_score,cross_total_score)
| eval risk_score = capped_risk_score
| search risk_score > 100
| table risk_object risk_object_type risk_score cross_total_score capped_risk_score total_risk_score related_objects mitre_tactic_id_count mitre_tactic_id mitre_technique_id_count mitre_technique_id source_count source threat_full threat_object risk_message risk_hash

The threat_check.csv has more fields than are utilized here, you may want to utilize more in the lookup OUTPUT section or as context for an investigation dashboard.

risk_hash is utilized to see related_objects which have fired with the same events; you can use this as a throttling field instead of risk_object to prevent notables from firing with the same events on a user and a system.

I recommend utilizing "capped_risk_score" as our risk score as the code is above, however you may find that "cross_total_score" works better in some environments.

Please test this out in your environment and give me feedback! There are definitely multiple ways to trim this chia pet, but I wanted to give folks an idea of what was possible.


@7thdrxn - Haylee Mills

Last update: June 15, 2024
Created: September 1, 2023